2017年吉林学位外语考试模拟试题样卷及解析

吉林省学士学位外语考试模拟试题样卷及解析

2017年吉林省学士学位外语考试模拟试题样卷及解析
 
Paper one 试卷一
 
(65 minutes ) 
 
Part Ⅰ Dialogue Completion (10 minutes , 10 points ) 
Directions : In this part , there are 3 dialogues with 3 or 4 blanks , each followed by 4 choices marked A , B , C , and D . Fill in each blank with the choice that best suits the situation  until the dialogue is complete. With Dialogue One , all the choices will have to be used . With Dialogue Two and Dialogue Three , one choice will be unused . Mark your answer on the ANSWERSHEET with a single bar through the centre of the letter that indicates your choice.
Frank : I’m glad that our company is starting to be more eco-friendly . 
David :  1  
Frank : We have started to recycle plastic bottles and aluminum cans . 
David : My family has started to bring our own bag to the grocery store instead of using plastic bags . 
Frank :  2  
David : What else are people you know doing to “go green” ? 
Frank : one of my co-workers has a car that runs on natural gas . 
David : oh . I heard that is a lot less expensive ,   3  
Frank : He does . our company just funded a project to build two windmills . 
David :  4  
Frank : Yes . And my uncle Put a big solar panel on the roof of his house . 
David : That is an interesting idea . 
Frank : It is hardly noticeable and it saves him money on the electric bill . 
    A . That is a great way to consume less . 
    B . so he saves a lot of money ? 
    C . Really ? 
    D . Me too.
 
Bert : What kind of hobbies do you have?
Andrew : Well , 1 like building model trains and cars . 
Bert :  5  
Andrew: Yeah, they are, but they look really cool after you’re done. 
Bert: They do! What else do you do in your free time?
Andrew:   6  
Bert: Oh, really? I play an instrument, too. 
Andrew:   7  
Bert: I play guitar, and I like to sing. 
Andrew: We should play some music together some time! 
Bert: Sounds good! 
    A. What instrument do you play? 
    B. Do you play any sports? 
    C. Those look like a lot of work. 
    D. I like to swim and play piano. 
 
Charles: You say that e-commerce will help me to reach more customers. How do I start? 
Edward: The first thing you should do is set up a website for your business.  8  When some-one goes online and searches for your products, they will see your website in a list of choices. 
Charles:   9  
Edward: They will see what you are selling and if they like something, they will buy it online. 
Charles:   10  I can use e-commerce to reach customers that are not in my town. 
Edward: Exactly, and the more customers you can reach, the better your business will do. 
    A. And what happens if they choose to look at my website? 
    B. Then you can list your products on it. 
    C. This is wonderful! 
    D. Why, what¡¯ s wrong with it? 
 
PartII  Reading Comprehension (35 minutes, 40 points) 
Directions : There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by 5 questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET with a single bar through the centre of the letter that indicates your choice. 
 
Passage One 
 
    This year, for the first time in history, more people are working in service trades than in goods production, according to the United Nations’ International Labor Organization(ILO) this week.
    In 1996, agriculture accounted for 42% of world employment, whth another 21% of workers in goods-producing industries and 37% in service. By last year , the ILO reported that 42% were in services, 37% in agriculture, and 22% in industry. 
    Technology is increasing economic competition in services from banking to tourism and heaithcare. The Internet and air transport now make it as easy to trade services across borders as it is to trade goods. 
“Driving a taxi is much easier than working in the fields,” says Brazilian Valdir de Santos, who has gone from farmhand to taxi driver. But all around him he sees low-paying jobs. Many people who move to Sao Paulo, Brazil, simply exchange a rural struggle with poverty for an urban one. The IEO voices similar concerns in its new report. It says many workers in developing countries remain under-used. 
Every country will continue to need both low-paying and high-skilled workers. But global incomes may be determined by skill levels in services.
Some economists worry about the change. As services become tradable products, workers will face competition from overseas. Princeton University economist Alan Blinder predicts that providers of “per-sonal services,” from hair stylists to trial lawyers, will be OK. But workers are unprotected in jobs where work doesn’t need to be done near the customer. 
For now, most workers in Brazil are simply focused on local realities, not global opportunities. 
 
11. Compared with his previous job, Valdir de Santos’s present one is_______.
A. higher paid  B. lower paid 
C. easier but still low-paying D. harder but high-skilled 
12. What is the IEO concerned about? 
A. The rural labor must struggle with poverty. 
B. The urban labor faces competition from the rural labor.
C. Many workers in developing countries have lost their jobs. 
D. Many workers in developing countries are not fully used. 
 
13. According to the IEO report, more earnings may depend on _________ . 
    A. more high-paying jobs 
    B. the higher skill levels in services 
    C. the rapid development in industry 
    D. the speedy development in science and technology. 
 
14. According to Alan Blinder, service workers not near customers are _________. 
    A. more likely to face competition from overseas 
    B. less likely to face competition from overseas 
    C. likely to have more global opportunities. 
    D. likely to provide personal services 
 
15. Which of the following is the proper title of this passage? 
    A. More People Working in Services Today  
    B. Services: Increasing and Going Global 
    C. Migration of Labor 
    D. Global Opportunities in Services 
 
Passage Two 
 
Work is a family responsibility. Right now you are benefiting from the work of your family. Your parents have worked hard to provide for your physical, spiritual, and emotional well-being. They do expect you to share some of the load. 
 On my son’s Graduation Day from the Harvard Business School, Dean Kim Clark asked each of the graduating students in the front rows to look behind them at their loved ones. As the graduates turned around, Dean Clark paused and said,”Were it not for the support of your family members, you would not be receiving this honor today.” And so it is for each of you. You have received much. In turn, you are expected-even required-to offer similar support and love to your own children and families. This does not mean continually”hanging out.” As you grow older, your parents expect you to provide for yourselves and become independent. 
    We all share in the work. Remember it is important to start early in life to teach your children that they should do their part in the work of a family. Those of you who have had the experience of growing up in a home where you were taught to work can bear testimony to its value in your life today. 
    We understand that in some places in the world you may encounter hardships when trying to provide for your families. These trials could include serious illness, the loss- of a spouse, the addition of an elderly parent, or providing for your children’s education. But it is my conviction that realization of the importance of work to your family will help you out. 
 
16. The author believes that we should _________ 
A. stay away- from -home   
B take up the family responsibility 
C. share the workload of our colleagues   
D. take good care of ourselves 
17. Dean Clark asked the graduating students to _________. 
A. sit in the front rows at the ceremony 
B. take pride in the honor they receive 
C. look back on their university days 
D. bear in mind the support from their family 
18. Upon graduation, students are expected to __________. 
A. do odd jobs in support of their families 
B. take good care of their- parents 
C. become independent of their parents 
D. hang out around their homes 
19. The word “testimony”(Para. 3) is closest in meaning to “__________”.
A. responsibility   B. witnes 
C. experience     D. gmtihide 
20. In this passage, the author intends to _______
A. highlight the importance of work to family
B. explain the scope of family responsibility 
C. call on students to become independent 
D. describe the hardships suffered by parents 
 
Passage Three 
 
    Experts say over half of the world’s seven thousand languages are in danger of disappearing. Every two weeks one language disappears. 
Sometimes a language disappears immediately when the last person speaking it dies. Or, a local Passage language might disappear more slowly. This happens when an official language is used more often and children stop learning the local language of their parents. Official languages often represent a form of control over a group of people. 
Throughout history, the language spoken by a powerful group spreads across a civilization. The more powerful culture rarely respects the language and culture of smaller groups. Smaller cultures lose their local language as the language of the culture in power has a stronger influence. 
Experts say protecting languages is very important for many reasons. Languages contain the histories, ideas and knowledge of a culture. Languages also contain valuable information about local medi-cines, plants and animals. 
Many endangered languages are spoken by native cultures in close contact with the natural world. Their ancient languages contain a great deal of information about environmental systems and species of plants and animals that are unknown to scientists. As the last speakers of a language die off, the valua-ble information carried within a language also disappears. Language is, in many ways, a window to the mind and the world. 
Any hope for protecting languages can be found in children and their willingness to learn. It is these young people who can keep this form of culture alive for future generations.

21. Which of the following is true? 
A. No one can prevent languages from disappearing. 
B. There will not be any local languages left some day. 
C. There have existed 7 ,000 languages in history. 
D. Half of the world¡¯s languages will possibly disappear. 
22. An official language is a language that _________ 
A. is highly advanced 
B. has a stronger influence 
C. competes with a local language
D. has a longer history 
23. Language is a window to the mind and the world because _________. 
A. it contains information about both culture and nature 
B. it represents the working of the human minds 
C. local languages are more closely related to culture 
D. ancient languages can reveal ancient people¡¯s thoughts 
24. According to the passage, a language will be better protected when ________ 
A. it is linked to a powerful culture 
B. people are forced to speak it 
C. it keeps pace with the times
 D. children are interested in learning it 
25. The passage mainly discusses _________ 
A. language and culture 
B. the power of language
C. language protection
D. local languages

Passage Four 

The New York Times has reported on a problem that many of us have but are not aware of--Internet addiction (成瘾). According to reporter Tara Parker-Pope, millions of us are addicted to being online. She says this is a growing problem that is making us more forgetful and impatient. Ms Parker- Pope writes about various reports highlighting how technology is changing people. In one, she quotes cyber-psychologist Dr. Elias Aboujaode who says:“More and more, life is resembling the chat room.”He said we are living in “virtual lifestyles” , which is negatively affecting our real-life relationships. Nicki Dowling, a clinical psychologist from Melbourne University in Australia, concluded in a recent study that ten per cent of young people had what she called “Internet dependence". 
    Tara Parker-Pope quizzed experts in this field on what the signs are of being overly absorbed in technology. She came up with seven indicators of “tech overload”. The first is whether you check your e-mail before doing other things. Another sign is if you always anticipate and look forward to your next online visit-a sure sign of dependence and addiction. The third point is if you say, “just a few more minutes” when someone wants you. Parker-Pope found your interaction with others also says a lot about how important the Internet is compared with family and friends; do you lie about how much time you spend online or choose to surf the Net instead of going out with others? Other indicators include the “online lift” that stops you being unhappy, and others” complaints about you always being online. 
 
26. Which of the following can be the title of this passage? 
    A. Internet Addiction. B. Virtual Lifestyles. 
    C. Indicators of Net Dependence. D. Importance of the Internet.
27. According to Tara Parker-Pope, millions of people ________ 
A. have realized the problem of Internet addiction 
B. cannot get rid of their habit of staying online 
C. have become more patient and careful online 
D. welcome the changes brought about by technology 
28. What does Dr. Elias Aboujaode think of the virtual lifestyles that we are living in? 
A. They make people eager to talk to each other. 
B. They make people more dependent on the Internet. 
C. They have a negative effect on real-life relationships. 
D. They get more people interested in online studies.
29. Which of the following is NOT a sign of Internet addiction? 
A. Checking e-mail before doing anything else. 
B. Expecting all the time the next online visit. 
C. Surfing the Net instead of going out with others. 
D. Arriving late for important appointments. 
30. What does “tech overload” (Para. 2) mean in the passage? 
A. Over-absorption in the Internet. 
B. Over-dependence on e-mail. 
C. Over-interest in technology. 
D. Over-interaction with friends. 

Part III Vocabulary and Structure (10 minutes, 10 points) 
Directions: There are 20 incomplete sentences in this section. For each sentence there are 4 chokes marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET with a single bar through the centre of the letter that indicates your choice. 

31. Why are you laughing at me? You don’t know the answer, _________ 
A. too B. either  C. neither D. also 
32. In order to be back in shape, I managed to stick _________ 
A. to  B. on  C.with D. in 
33. I certainly appreciate you _________
A. to have brought   B.to bring  C. bring   D bringing
34. There are more pressing matters_________at the moment 
A. attending to   B. being attended to  C. attend to   D. to be attended to 
35. _________for the doctor on board the plane, the passenger could have ended up dead.
A. Had it not been  B. Were it not   C. If it was not  D. If it had been not 
36. A crisis like _________ 1973-74 could put one in ten companies into bankruptcy. 
A. that of  B. one in  C. those of  D. ones in 
37. That vase is worth one million pounds now. If only you _________ it! 
A. didn’t sell   B. hadn’t sold   C. haven’t sold   D. wouldn’t sell 
38. There are no vacant seats on this flight, but there are _________ available on the next one.
A. little  B. a little  C. few D. afew 
 
39. Technology for text messaging _________ available to the general public for about a decade. 
    A. is B. has been  C. will be  D. will have been 
40. The new policy is meant to force enterprises and individuals to _________ energy-saving measures. 
A. adapt  B. adopt C. adjust D. admit 
41. The house is too small for -a family of seven, and ____, it’s too far away from the city. 
A. therefore B. however  C. moreover D. actually 
42. I believe Eugene Linen’s writings about animal intelligence will give you a new _________ on the subject.
A. principle B.performance  proposal  Dperspective
43. My boyfriend bought me a big dinner to _________ being late for our date the day before. 
A. make, up for  B. make out of  C. make way for  D. make fun of
44. The little girl did not seem to be _________ frightened of being left alone in the dark house. 
A. in the least    B. in the end  C. in any case  D. in a sense 
45 To use the machine, first _________ the proper coins, then select the drink you want and press the- button. 
     A. place   B. insert  C. toss   D. throw
46. Ever since the new movie _________ , the leading actor and actress have tried to avoid their fans. 
A. came on  B. came off  C. came out   D. came across
47. When we say that we see light at the end - of tunnel, we mean that victory is _________ 
A. in practice  B. in question  C. in future  D. in sight 
48. These laws are intended to protect the people and prevent government officials- from __________ their power. 
A. exercising   B. abusing C. executing  D. imposing
49. All the movies I wanted to rent were not available, so as a ( n) _________ I went home and watched television. 
A. relief  B. remedy  C. alternative D. excuse 
50. Many of the people _________ refused to answer any questions. 
A. question  B. questioned  C. questioning D. were questioned 
 
Part IV Cloze (10 minutes, 10 points)
Directions: There are 10 blanks in the following passage. For each numbered blank, there are 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one and mark your answer on the ANSWERSHEET with a single bar through the centre of the letter that indicates your choice. 

A German study has found that chocolate may be good for your heart. This is  51  news for all chocolate lovers. The extensive research was conducted over eight years. The research team  52  the chocolate-eating habits and health of almost 20,000 people. They compared how much chocolate was in their dieto the   53  of heart attacks and strokes they had. Lead researcher Brian Buijsse said: “The good news is that chocolate is not as   54  as we used to think, and may even lower the risk of heart disease and fired stroke.” Mr. Buijsse said his team found that dark chocolate was the  55  kind to eat: “Dark chocolate exhibits the greatest effects, milk chocolate fewer, and white chocolate no effects. ” 
    The study showed that people who ate the most chocolate  56  their risk of having a heart attack by 27%. The risk of suffering a stroke was cut by  57  48%. Experts believe that natural compounds in chocolate called flavonols ( 黄酮醇) are good for our heart. They are found in cocoa beans,   58   dark chocolate (which has more cocoa) contains more of them than milk chocolate (which has more fat). Buijsse warns people not to suddenly eat lots of chocolate: “Eating higher amounts will most likely  59  weight gain. If people start eating small amounts of chocolate, it should replace something else,  60   other high-calorie( 卡路里) sweets or snacks. 
    51. A. fantastic B. terrible C. shocking D. worrying 
    52. A. tested B. followed C. considered D. debated 
    53. A. amount B. portion C. number D. deal 
    54. A. good B. dangerous C. great D. bad 
    55. A. healthiest B. sweetest C. cheapest D. worst 
    56. A. increased B. reduced C. enlarged D. removed 
    57. A. as many as B. as far as C. as much as D. as well as 
    58. A. so B. because C. as D. though 
    59. A. result in B. result from C. lead in D. lead from 
    60. A. practically B. preferably C. presently D. precisely 
 
Paper Two 试卷二
(55 minutes) 
 
Part V Translation (25 minutes, 15 points) 
Directions: Translate the following passage into Chinese and put your translation on the ANSWERSHEET. 
    I have always wondered at the passion many people have to meet the celebrated. The “advantage” you acquire by being able to tell your friends that you know famous men proves only that you are yourself of small account. The celebrated develop a technique to deal with the persons they come across. They show the world a mask, often an impressive one, but take care to conceal their real selves. They play the part that is expected from them, and with practice learn to play it very well, but you are stupid if you think that this public performance of theirs corresponds with the man within. 
 
Part VI Writing(30 minutes, 15 points) 
Directions: You are to write in no less than 100 words a composition entitled“What I Think of the Chinese Dream” You may base your composition on the Chinese clues given below. Write your composition on the ANWSER SHEET. 

近年全国上下都在谈论“中国梦”;
你心目中的“中国梦”是什么。
 
试题答案
 
Part I Dialogue Completion (10 minutes ,10 points) 
1.D 2.A 3.B 4.C 5.C 6.D 7.A 8.B 9.A 10.C 
 
Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes ,40 points) 
11. C 12. D 13. B 14. A 15. A 16. B 17. D 18. C 19. B 20. A 
21. D 22. B 23. A 24. D 25. C 26. A 27. B 28. C 29. D 30. A 
 
Part ⅢVocabulary and Structure ( 10 minutes ,10 points) 
31. B 32. A 33. D 34. D 35. A 36. A 37. B 38. D 39. B 40. B 
41. C 42. D 43. A 44. A 45. B 46. C 47. D 48. B 49. C 50. B 
 
Part Ⅳ Cloze( 10 minutes,10 points)
51. A 52. B 53. C 54. D 55. A 56. B 57. C 58. A 59. A 60. B 
 
Part V Translation(25 minutes,15 points) 

参考译文

我始终不明白为什么那么多人热衷于见名人。在朋友面前吹嘘自己认识某某名人,唯一的“好处”只能是表明自己微不足道。名人们个个练就了一套本领,无论遇见谁,都能应对自如。他们向世人展示的是面具,一张常常是美好难忘的面具,而把真实的面貌小心翼翼地掩盖起来。他们只是表演公众期待的角色,表演多了,终能驾轻就熟。如果以为名人们在公众面前的这种表演就是他们真实的自我,你可就犯傻了。 
Part Vl Writing ( 30 minutes , 15 points ) 

参考作文
What I Think of the Chinese Dream
The concept of “Chinese Dream” represents a set of ideals shared by both the leadership and the general public. The ideals may mean” re-emergence of China” ,as officials put it. To me , however, the Chinese Dream may translate into realistic goals pursued by us ordinary citizens.
Then what are some of the goals we are pursuing? Today ,we are looking for things that are more than just pocketbook. We have a richer conception of what a good life means : we want to live in a place where the air is clean: we want to have unpolluted water to drink and healthy food to eat; we need not feel worried when we are ill or as we grow old. Our children can receive good education and get jobs when they grow up. There is fair play in competition and justice in court rulings. These goals should be fully covered by the ideals which are described as the Chinese Dream.
To sum up ,it is the realistic goals held by the masses that form the basis of the Chinese Dream and thus merit more serious attention.

试题解析
 
Part I Dialogue Completion(完成对话)
 
第一段
整段对话是有关绿色、环保的话题。选项有两个问句、两个陈述句。本段要求用完4 个选项。

空格1 :答案D 
Frank 对David说他的公司已开始采取更环保的措施,空格1 的内容是David 的回应。选项A 比较具体,不是所需要的一般性的回应;选项B 是后半句话,并是问句,也不合适;选项C , Really 表示惊奇或疑惑,也不切题。只有选项D . Me too ( “我也是”)符合要求,因此是答案。

空格2 :答案A 
David说“他们家开始不用商店的塑料袋而是自带口袋去购物”,空格2 的内容是Frank 的回应。浏览选项,见有两个选项A 和B 可选,选项B 中的“省钱”似乎与“带口袋购物”有些联系,但代词he 及问句形式都与上下文不符;而选项A “那是减少消耗的好方式”很切合题意,因此是答案。“减少消耗”是指塑料袋的“消耗”。
 
空格3 :答案B 
Frank 谈到他的同事有一辆使用天然气的小车,David 回应说他听说那种小车便宜多了,空格3 待填紧跟其后的内容。看选项,上面提到的选项B 正好合适。虽然是问句,但此处可用,因为David的疑问表明他对燃气汽车不贵这件事没有把握,所以向Frank 发问,而下文Frank 的回答He does 正好与之吻合。因此B 是答案。
 
空格4 :答案C 
至此只剩下选项C 可放人空格4 ,观察是否合适。这里是David 听Frank 说公司已出资建造风力发电机(windmills )的反应,选项C 正好合适。至此本段解答完毕。

第二段

对话是有关业余爱好的。4 个选项有两个问句、两个陈述句。本段有一多余选项。

空格5 :答案C 

Andrew 说“喜欢建造模型火车和汽车”, Bert 在空格5 处进行回应,而下文是Andrew 肯定的确认,因此这里很可能需要一个问句。浏览选项,选项A 和B 都是问句,但意思都不对。选项D 也不达意,都可排除。再看选项C . Those look like a lot of work ( “那些事似乎需要花很多功夫”) , 虽然它是陈述句,但却完全可作为Bort 的回应,因为建造模型火车和汽车费时费力是不言而喻的。因此选项C 是答案。
 
空格6 :答案D 
此处是Andrew 对Bert “你业余时间还做些什么”的回应。对Andrew 的回答Bert 还略显惊讶。浏览选项,A 和B 两个问句都不合适,只有D . I like to swim and play piano 可作为对上面问句的回答,因此是答案。

空格7 :答案A 
Bert 说“他也玩乐器”,空格7 是Andrew 的回应或评论。选项中只有A . What instrument do you play ( “你玩什么乐器?" )合适,因此是答案。至此本段解答完毕。

第三段
整段对话话题是电子商务(e_commerce )。选项中有两个问句、一个感叹句、一个陈述句。本段多余一个选项。
 
空格8 :答案B 
Charles 向Edward 请教如何从事电子商务,Edward开始给他出主意。空格8 待填内容是建议的一部分。浏览选项,B . Then you can list your products , it ( “然后你在网上列出你的产品”) 很合适,这是电子商务的第二个步骤。
 
空格9 :答案A 
Edward 给出建议后,选项C . This is  wonderful ( “那太棒了!" )似乎也可以是Charles 的反应,但与下文They will See what you are selling … (“他们将看到你卖的东西… … ”)不符合。此处Charles 似乎可以询问下一步该做的事情,选项A 正是这样的提问,它与下文完全吻合,因此是答案。
 
空格10 :答案C 
此处是Charles 听完建议后发表自己的感受。选项D 作为问句不符合要求。选项C 才是正确选择,是答案。至此本段解答完毕。
Part 11 Reading Comprehension (阅读理解)
 
第一篇
本文介绍了就业的新趋势,根据联合国国际劳工组织(ILO )的数据,目前服务业的从业人数首次超过了制造业的人数。文章分析了部分的原因并介绍了服务业的现状以及存在的问题.
11 .答案:C 
解析:第四段前两句介绍了Valdir de Santos 的情况。他认为开出租车比种地轻松,但是他接触的都只是低收人的工作。
12 .答案:D 
解析:第四段最后一句说,ILO 担心的是发展中国家的许多工作者仍然没有得到充分的利用。
13 .答案:B 
解析:第五段说每个国家都仍然需要低收入和高技能的工作者。但是收人是由提供服务的技能水平决定的。
14 .答案:A 
解析:第六段说随着服务成为可交易的产品,工作者将面临海外的竞争。经济学家Alan Blinder 预测能够提供“私人服务”的人群,如发型师和律师,不会有什么问题。但是对那些不需要在客户眼前服务的工作者来说,他们的就业可能无法得到保障。也就是说,他们更有可能面临海外的竞争。
15 . 答案:A 
解析:本文主要介绍经济领域的新变化,历史上第一次服务业的从业人员超过了制造业的人数。

第二篇
本文强调了工作是一种家庭责任。父母努力工作为子女创造身心健康成长的环境,父母也会期望子女努力工作,承担应有的家庭责任。
16 .答案:B 
解析:第一段提到工作是一种家庭责任。你正在从父母的工作中获益,他们的工作为你提供了身心健康的条件。他们也希望你能够分担这样的家庭责任。
17 . 答案:D 
解析:第二段Kim Clark 在哈佛商学院的毕业典礼上要求前排的学生回过头去看看自己的亲人,并告诉他们:“如果没有家人的支持,你们今天就不会得到这样的荣誉。”
18 .答案:C 
解析:第二段最后三句说现在希望,甚至要求你们为自己的孩子和家庭提供类似的支持。这就意味着不能再“闲逛”了。长大后,父母希望你能够自己养自己,能够独立。
19 .答案:B 
解析:第三段最后一句说,那些从小就被父母教导要努力工作的人能够证明工作对人生的价值。testimony 的意思是证明。
20 .答案:A 
解析:作者在文章中反复强调的就是工作的重要性,特别是工作对承担家庭责任的重要性。最后一段说在你的生活中可能经历一些困难,但认识到工作对家庭的重要性就会帮助你战胜这些困难。

第三篇
本文介绍了世界上有很多语言正在逐渐消失。作者分析了这些语言消失的原因,认为我们有理由保护这些濒临灭绝的语言,拯救这些语言的希望在于年轻人愿意学习并传承这些语言及代表的文化。
21 .答案:D 
解析:第一段说现在世界上的7 000 种语言中超过一半正面临消失的危险。但不是说历史上总共存在过7 000 种语言,所以C 是错误的。最后一段说保护这些濒临消失的语言的希望在于年轻人愿意学习并传承它们,说明还是有希望让这些语言保留下来的,所以A 和B 是错误的。
22 .答案:B 
解析:文章第二、三段提到了官方语言。第二段最后一句说官方语言代表了控制一群人的一种形式。第三段最后一句说强势文化的语言具有更大的影响力,一些小的文化社会就会失去自己的语言。而官方语言通常都是强势文化的语言。
23 .答案:A 
解析:第四、五段讲述了为什么语言是通向思想和世界的窗户。第四段说语言中涵盖了一种文化的历史、思想和知识,还包括了有关医药和动植物的有用信息。第五段特别强调一些濒临消失的语言代表的文化往往和自然界具有亲密的关系,所以这些语言中包含了有关环境和动植物的大量信息,这些信息是科学家都不了解的。
24 .答案:D 
解析:回答该题需要参考文章最后一段。最后一段说保护这些濒临消失的语言的希望在于年轻人愿意学习并传承它们。
25 .答案:C 
解析:参见文章介绍。

第四篇
本文讲述了《 纽约时报》 报道的许多人都有却没有意识到的问题― 网瘾,并分析了“技术超载”,即过度依赖互联网的几个表现特征。
26 .答案:A 
解析:第一段就提到《 纽约时报》 报道了许多人都有却没有意识到的问题― 网瘾。第二段又介绍了人们过度依赖互联网的几个表现特征。
27 .答案:B 
解析:第一段的第二句讲到Tara Parker-Pope 发现数以百万计的人有网瘾。这使得我们更健忘,更没有耐心。
28 .答案:C 
解析:第一段第五句说,Elias Aboujaode 说过:“生活越来越像聊天室。我们生活在虚拟的生活方式中,这对真实的生活产生了负面的影响。”
29 .答案:D 
解析:第二段介绍了网瘾的几个表现特点。一是做其他事之前先查邮箱。二是总是期待着下一次上网。三是别人需要你的时候总是说“等几分钟”。其他表现还包括选择网上冲浪而不愿和别人一起出去等。没有提到在重要的约会中迟到。因此答案是D 。
30 .答案:A 
解析:从第二段的介绍中可以看出“技术超载”在这里指对互联网的过度依赖,过度沉迷于互联网的虚拟世界中。不仅仅只是邮箱的问题.所以B 是错误的。

PartⅢ vocabulary and Structure (词汇和语法)
31 .答案:B 
解析:本题是语法题,考点是not … either ,比较容易。全句意思是:“你为啥笑我?你也不知道答案。”
32 .答案:A 
解析:本题是词汇题,考点是stick to ,比较容易。Stick to 是常用短语动词。全句意思是:“为了恢复原来的身材,我设法保持节食并远离甜品。”
33 .答案:D 
解析:本题是词汇兼语法题,考的是appreciate 后跟物主代词加动名词的用法。只要知道appreciate ”后面只能跟名词,不能跟动词,就能答对本题。
34 .答案:D 
解析:本题是语法题,考的是非谓语动词不定式作定语,修饰前面的名词。但答对本题还需知道这个动词不定式与前面名词的关系。如名词是动词的逻辑主语,则动词可用主动形式,即保持原形不变,如for a time to come ( “在未来的一段时间内”) ;如名词是动词的逻辑宾语,则动词需用被动形式,即过去分词。本题的动词是一个短语动词attend to ( “照料、处理”) ,应把它看成是及物动词。答案是D 。全句意思是:“眼下还有更迫切的事情需要处理。”
35 .答案:A 
解析:本题考的是虚拟语气,句子是对过去相反情况的假设二考生需知道had it not been for ( “如果不是”)可后接名词表达这一假设,而主句谓语采用正常的“情态动词+ have + done ”的形式,这里的情态动词是could ,表可能性。全句意思是:“如果不是飞机上有那位医生,那个乘客没准就没命了。”
36 .答案:A 
解析:本题考的是that 作代词的用法。句中的that 指代前面的crisis 。全句意思是:“像1973 到1974 年那样的危机可使1 / l0 的公司破产。”
37 .答案:B 
解析:本题考的也是虚拟语气,表达一种但愿事情没有发生的愿望。这种愿望用if only 引导,时态采用过去完成时,因此B 是答案。全句意思是:“那个花瓶现在值一百万英镑。你要是没卖就好了!”
38 .答案:D 
解析:本题考查few 和a few 的区分。选项A , little 和B . a little 都用于不可数名词,而航班上的seats ( “座位”)是可数的,因此可以先行排除。再看前后两句的逻辑关系,前句说“本次航班没有空位了”,后句带but ,有转折的意思,那就是说有空位。因此应选肯定的a few ,而不是否定的few 。~因此D 是答案。
39 .答案:B 
解析:本题考的是现在完成时。注意句子最后的时间状语for about a decade (“大约10 年了”表明一个时段。句子描述的事件时间上显然是从过去到现在,而不是从现在到将来。表时段的状语,以及事件是从过去指向现在,这两个条件符合现在完成时用法的要求,因此B 是答案。全句意思是:“普通大众可以使用短信技术大约有10 个年头了。”
40 .答案:B 
解析:本题是词汇题,考点是adopt ( “采取”的用法。干扰项adjust ( “调节、调整”)有一定干扰性,但“调整措施”不如“采取措施”更适合语境,而且adjust 不与measures 搭配使用。adapt ( “改变以适应”)也不合语境。至于admit ( “运行、承认”) ,完全是用于形式上的干扰,与语境无干,很容易排除。全句意思是:“新政策意在迫使企业和个人采取节能措施。”
41 .答案:C 
解析:本题是语法题,考点是连接词moreover 。解答本题的关键是看清两个小句之间的逻辑关系。选项A . therefore ( “因此”)和B . however ( “然而”)分别表示因果和转折关系,不符合本题小句间的逻辑关系;选项D . actuallv ( “事实上”)表达进一步的解释,也与语境不合。只有C . moreover ( “而且”)表示递进,符合题意。前后两个小句表达的都是房子的缺点,后一缺点是对前一个的跟进和补充。全句意思是:“房子太小,住不下七口之家,而且,它离市区也太远。”
42 .答案:D 
解析:本题是词汇题,考点是perspective 。干扰项主要从形式上干扰,语义上干扰性不大。全句意思是:“我相信,尤金· 利嫩关于动物智力的文章会给这一课题一个全新的视角。”
43 .答案:A 
解析:本题考查短语动词make up for ( “弥补”)。选项B . make out 。f 中,make 后面缺一个名词,因此不合适;选项C . make way for 和D . make fun of 虽可放人空格,但与题意相去甚远。因此A . make up for 是答案。全句意思是:“我男朋友请我吃了一顿丰盛的晚餐,以弥补前一天约会迟到。”
44 .答案:A 
解析:本题考的是in the least 。这个短语常与not 连用,意为“一点也不”。选项B . in the end ( “最终”)、C . in any case ( “无论哪种情况”)和D . in a sense ( “从某种意义上说”)意义上都有一定的干扰性,但在没有上下文的情况下,都不如in the least 合适。全句意思是:“小女孩对独自一人留在黑漆漆的房子里似乎一点都不害怕。”
45 .答案:B 
解析:本题的考点是insert ( “插入”)。全句是由3 个祈使句构成的,指导如何塞人硬币从自动售货机中购买饮料。选项C . toss ( “抛”)和D . throw ( “扔”)是同义词,但似乎不合题意,因为投人硬币不能随便“抛”或“扔”。选项A . place ( “放置”)虽然可以和后面的the proper coins ( “合适的硬币”)连用,但需要再跟一个地点状语,即“放置的地方”,然而句子后面没有这样的状语。只有剩下的insert 合适,它不需要地点状语,语义上也切合题意,因此B 是答案。
46 .答案:C 
解析:本题考的是短语动词Come out ( “出版、上映”)。4 个选项都以come 开头,为的是从形式上干扰,但除了选项C ,其余在意义上都不合题意。选项D . came across 填人后连语法都不对。全句意思是:“自从新电影上映以来,男女主角一直都试图躲避他们的影迷。”
47 .答案:D 
解析:本题的考点是in sight ( “在视野中/在望”)。选项A . in practice ( “在实践中”)、B . in question ( “讨论中的/存疑的”)和C . in future ( “在将来”)都不符题意,因为全句的意思是“当我们说看到隧道尽头的亮光时,我们的意思是说胜利在望。”所以只有D 符合要求,是答案。
48 .答案:B 
解析:本题的考点是abuse ( “滥用”)。4 个选项A . exercising ( “运作”)、B . abusing ( “滥用”)、C . executing ( “执行”)和D . imposing ( “强加”)都可与空格后的their power ( “他们的权力”)连用,但看全句的意思只有abusing 适用,因此B 是答案。全句意思是:“制定这些法律是为了保护人民并防止政府官员滥用权力。”
49 .答案:C 
解析:本题是词汇题,考点是alternative 。选项A . relief ( “解脱/免除烦恼、痛苦等”)意义差得远,可先行排除。选项B . remedy ( “摆脱麻烦的办法”)和选项D . excuse ( “借口”)都不太符合题意。前半句“所有我想租的电影都没有”谈不上是需要“摆脱”或找“借口”逃避的事情。“看电影”是一种消遣方式,后半句的“回家看电视”是另一种消遣方式,选项C . alternative ( “替代方式”)正好符合题意,因此是答案。
50 .答案:B 
解析:本题是语法题,考查非谓语动词过去分词作定语,修饰前面的名词。question 本是名词,本题的选项是动词question ( “询问”)的各种形式,选项A . question 为动词原形,放人空格不合语法;选项D . were questioned 填人空格,句子将有两个谓语,因此也不行;选项C . questioning 是现在分词,有主动意义,填入空格不合题意,只有选项B . questioned ( “被询问”)语法和意义都适合于空格,因此是答案。全句意思是:“许多被问到的人都拒绝回答任何问题。”

Part IV Cloze (完形填空)

本篇短文报告一项德国的研究,主题是巧克力对保护心脏的好处。文章偏长,考生可能会遇到一些不常见的单词,但句子结构并不复杂。
空格51 :答案A 
本文第一句开门见山,说一项德国研究发现巧克力可能对心脏有好处。空格51 在第二句news 前面,需要一个形容词。既然报道说巧克力有好处,那自然是“好消息”。浏览选项,A . fantastic ( “超级棒”)虽略嫌夸张,却符合意境。其余3 个选项B . terrible ( “可怕的”)、C . shocking ( “令人震惊的”)和D . worrying ( “令人着急的”)都是负面意义,可以排除。
空格52 :答案B 
空格所在句说明研究者是怎样进行研究的:“研究团队… … 约20 000 人吃巧克力的习惯以及他们的健康状况。”这里需要一个动词,大致是“跟踪”的意思。看4 个选项,确有B . followed , 因此是答案。其余A . tested ( “测试”)、C , considered ( “考虑”)和D . debated ( “辩论”)都不符合题意。
空格53 :答案C 
空格53 所在句说:“研究人员将被试食用巧克力的数量与他们心脏病和中风的… … 进行比较。”省略之处显然需要一个相当于“数量”的名词。观察选项A . amount ( “量”、B . Portion ( “部分”)、C . number ( “数量”)和D . deal ( “交易”) ,其中A 和C 有“数量”义,但amount 只用于不可数名词,而number 可与后面的attacks 和strokes 相配,因此选项C 是答案。
空格54 :答案D 
本空格所在句是引用研究小组负责人的一句话:“好消息是巧克力并不像我们原先想的那样…… ,而是甚至可能降低心脏病和中风的风险。”从上下文可以推断,现在认为巧克力是好的,那么原先肯定认为是不好的,因此这里需要一个负面意义的词。浏览选项:A . good ( “好的”)、B . dangerous ( “危险的”)、C . great ( “伟大的”)和D . bad ( “坏的”) ,其中B 和D 是负面意义,两相比较,had 比dangerous 更合适,因此D 是答案。
空格55 :答案A 
空格55 所在句的后半句是上述负责人的话,“黑巧克力显示的效果最好,牛奶巧克力有一些效果,而白巧克力则没有效果”。空格位于前半句,需要一个形容词描述“黑巧克力”是什么样的类别。联系后半句的意思,这个形容词应是褒义的。选项A . healthiest ( “最健康的”)、B . sweetest ( “最甜的”)、C . cheapest ( “最便宜的”)和D . worst ( “最差的”)中只有A . healthiest 最适合语境,因此是答案。
空格56 :答案B 
空格56 所在句是另一段的开始。整句的意思是:“研究表明,吃巧克力最多的人突发心脏病的风险… … 约27 %。”根据上文的意思,空格需要一个表达“减少”或“降低”意义的动词。选项A . increased ( “增加”)、B . reduced ( “减少”)、C . enlarged ( “放大”)和D . removed ( “去除”)中,只有B . reduced 合适,因此是答案。
空格57 :答案C 
这个空格所在句是紧接前面的一句,进一步讲降低患中风的风险。略去空格,句子意义已经完整,除非另加一个百分比的修饰语。观察选项:A . as many as 、B .as fa as 、C .as much as ,和D .as well as ,只有C .as much as ( “多达”)合适,因此是答案。
空格58 ;答案A 
空格58 需要一个小句间的连接词,表明后半句与前半句的逻辑关系。前半句说有益于心脏的成分是在可可豆中发现的,后半句比较各种巧克力中这种有益成分的含量,说黑巧克力要多于其他巧克力。因此可推断,这个逻辑连词应有“因此”的意思。4 个选项中只有A . so 符合条件,因此是答案。其余B . because 、C . as 和D . though 都不合适。
空格59 :答案A 
讲了巧克力的好处,文章自然而然也会提醒人们不要多吃。空格59 位于专家说的话中:“食用较大量的巧克力最可能… … 体重增加”,最好的选择是“导致”。选项A .result in 有此意,因此是答案。
空格60 :答案B 
本空格出现在最后的句子中,大意是:吃少量的巧克力可替代其他卡路里含量高的食物,如糖和点心。空格中需要一个副词。看选项,A . practically ( “实际上”)、B . preferably ( “最好”)、C . Presently ( “不久”)和D . precisely ( “精确地”) , B 最合适。

Part V Translation (英译汉)
 
[1] have always wondered at the passion many people have to meet the celebrated .
[解释]本句语法理解重点是:Passion 后面实际上有两个定语,一个是many people have ,另一个是to meet the celebrated 。如果将have 和to 看成一体,会出现混乱和错误。词汇理解重点是the celebrated ,大纲中只有动词Celebrate ,现为其过去分词,相当于形容词化,而“the +形容词”表示“一类人”,如the young 、the rich 等。从翻译顺序上说,本句采用顺译和倒译都可以,译法自然也有所不同。
【 参考译文1 】 “许多人热衷于见名人,我始终不得其解。”(倒译)
【参考译文2】 “我始终不明白为什么那么多人热衷于见名人。”(顺译)ll

[ 2 ] The " advantage " you acquire by being able to tell your friends that you know famous men proves only that you are yourself of small account . 
[解释]本句主干结构是The “ advantage”… Proves … that … ,其中that 引出主句的宾语从句。主语The " advantage ”带有定语从句you acquire by being able to tell your friends … famous men ,其中that you know famous men 是动词tell 的宾语从句。因此句子显得比较复杂。这里的account 是importance 、value 或worth 的意思。
 
[3] The celebrated develop a technique to deal with the persons they come across .
【 解释】这是一个简单句,句法和词汇都比较简单,只是technique 和deal with 的措辞需稍加斟酌。此外,要想译出点味道来,这里The celebrated 所蕴含的复数信息最好表达出来。
【 参考译文】 “名人们个个练就了一套本领,无论遇见谁,都能应对自如。”

[4] They show the world a mask , often an impressive one , but take care to conceal their real selves . 
[解释]本句谓语由以but 连接的两个动词show 和take care 构成,第一个谓语动词所带的双宾语之一a mask 后还有一个同位语an impressive one 。词汇理解不难,但要注意mask 、impressive 和real selves 的措辞。
【 参考译文】 “他们向世人展示的是面具,一张常常是美好难忘的面具,而把真实的面貌小心翼翼地掩盖起来。”

[5]  They play the part that 15 expected from them , and with practice learn to play it very well , but you are stupid if you think that this public performance of theirs corresponds with the man within .
[解释]本句句法层次较多,因此比较复杂。主干是由but 连接的两个并列句。第一句的主干为They play the part … ,and … learn to play it very well ,其中the part 后接一个定语从句,learn 前面有一个介词短语with practice 作状语。第二句的主干为you are stupid if you think … ,think 后带一个that 引导的宾语从句,其中的主语较长,即this public performance of theirs 。好在本句词汇并不难,措辞上需斟酌的就是最后的the man within ,它与前一句的their real selves 差不多同义。
【 参考译文】 “他们只是表演公众期待的角色,表演多了,终能驾轻就熟。如果以为名人们在公众面前的这种表演就是他们真实的自我,你可就犯傻了。”

Part Ⅵ Writing (短文写作)
 
这是2013 年硕士联考用过的考题,学士学位考试不妨也用一下。文章应该写成一篇论述文,论题是“中国梦”。
范文一开始就点题,并很快提出作者的观点。先指出“‘中国梦’的概念代表着领导层和普通大众共有的一系列理想。”接着说“这些理想对官员来说可以是‘中国崛起’,而对我来说,中国梦应该转换成我们普通市民追求的一些现实的目标”。英文单词realistic 的意思是“实在的、现实的”。第一段两句话言简意赅,提出了作者的观点,也为下文展开论述做好了铺垫。第二段第一句话设问:“那么我们现时追求的目标是什么呢?”然后说:“今天,我们所追求的已经超出了钱的范畴。我们对好生活的概念有了更深刻的理解。”接着,文章列举了目前普通大众关注的一系列事情,如“干净的空气”、“没有污染的饮用水和健康食品”、“养老保障”、“子女教育就业”、“公平竞争”、“法律公正”等。这是用实例来支持作者提出的观点,这一论证展开方式叫做illustration ( “例释”)。
 
 
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